Yisensh Improving Home and Design

Just about Home Design and Furniture for Home Inprovement

Line Losses A Different Kind Of Energy Efficiency

It’s a homeowner’s responsibility to make sure that he or she is using appliances that are energy efficient. Replacing a twenty-year-old refrigerator is likely to reduce your electricity bill because a new ENERGY STAR-rated icebox has been designed to do more while using less of the juice. Energy efficiency, however, is not just a concern for the little guy. Utility companies must worry about “line losses,” the electricity that is lost as a result of the inherent inefficiency of the generation and transmission system. In places like Texas and New York, however, engineers are thinking of ways to prevent this waste. Best of all, the savings will be passed on to you, the consumer.

What causes this loss of energy in the first place? There are many reasons, including the flaws in electrical cables and the natural tendency toward entropy. (That’s the principle that says that systems tend to become more disordered over time.) Jim Landers, a columnist for the Dallas Morning News, explains that small amounts of electricity turn into heat as it runs through a conductor. This is one of the reasons that power adaptors can feel warm to the touch when you try to unplug them. This unwanted heat isn’t such a big deal for appliances with short cables. When you think of power transmission cables and the hundreds of miles they can traverse, you can understand why line losses are such a big concern.

In Texas, line loss results in the waste of 6.5% of all the Texas electricity generated in the Lone Star State. While that might not sound like very much, it starts to add up when you think of it in terms of your pocketbook. For every one hundred dollars you pay for Texas electricity, inefficiencies account for $6.50. One way to reduce that amount is to replace old, lower capacity transmission cables with more advanced lines that can handle the kind of high voltages that keep the lights on in modern cities. Landers note that there are plans in place to connect the wind farms of West Texas to the rest of the state via 345-kilovolt lines that boast only 4% inefficiency.

Much like Texans, New Yorkers know what it’s like to need a vast supply of reliable New York electricity. To reduce the effect of line losses, engineers have developed synchrophasors. According to the North American SynchroPhasor Initiative (NASPI), computers can measure voltage running through a line at very high speed. With this detailed information about the flow of energy, utilities can better manipulate the grid to reduce the stress on the system and eliminate some of that waste. For example, if a power plant malfunctions, thereby causing the voltage in the system to fluctuate, the use of synchrophasors allows authorities to quickly address the situation before it causes increased waste. (Or worse, an interruption in supply.)

Matthew L. Wald, a writer for the New York Times, sees the benefits of synchrophasors, reminding readers that current monitoring devices only provide measurements every two to four seconds. The kind of synchrophasors that are being installed in New York and in the Midwest are able to provide feedback thirty times a second, allowing computers to regulate energy flow more fortuitously.

The devices themselves aren’t too expensive: approximately two to three thousand dollars for each synchrophasor. The real cost is derived from the computer and networking system that allows it to interact with the energy grid. Some of this money comes from the Energy Department, but even if residents end up paying to equip the grid with this technology, it’s the kind of wise long-term strategy that will result in long-term savings.

While it certainly will not be cheap to invest so much to establish a more efficient electric grid, it’s also a vital part of a greener future. Wind farms and solar facilities are (just like old-fashioned natural gas and coal power generation plants) often located far away from densely populated areas. As a result, utilities must run miles and miles of cable, resulting in greater line loss. If alternative energies can be more easily worked into the grid, we’ll all save money and enjoy a healthier environment. So the next time you read about improvements being made by state or local electric utilities, remember that something as simple as the cable strung between your home and the power plant can have a big effect on your monthly bill.

How To Improve Your Drafting Abilities Perfect Your Best Skills Or Decrease Your Weaknesses

Even if you are on pension like most of my educatees, you’ve only limited free hours and energy for your drawing hobby. And if you are making art professionally then time and energy might be almost more constricted and of value to you!

So you may be asking yourself: what should I concentrate on when drawing? You could work on improving your abilitiesor you could invest time in getting rid of your weaknesses.

Quite a difficult question. It is crucial to think some time on the question into what to put your hours and energy.

On one hand you should concentrate on your best skills. Let us say for instance you are outstanding in sketching fluent and realistic looking shadings. So you should invest more of your efforts in additional honing these abilities. Some more energy will bring your skill-level from “great” to “superb”.

On the other hand you should invest your energy in fixing your weaker skills. Let us take for granted you need a lot of more praxis in drawing proportions and perspective more accurately. Putting effort you would move your skill in this area to at least medium levels.

But a second! If you concentrate alone on compensating your weaknesses, you will commit many effort to transmute these shortcomings into just average skills. Ultimately that implies you’ll wind up with all but mediocre powers, the result is only averageness.

You read there are both advantages and disfavors to both options be it building upon your strengths or be it fighting your weaknesses.

Many artists will try to tell you: forget your weaknesses and focus on your top abilities. That’s a great advice but as you’ll understand only half the truth.

So what to do?

First it’s crucial you know your weaknesses and you need to know how much your weaknesses affect your drawing results. An example: Whilst creating many pencil sketches, weak skills in perspective and proportions will hinder you much more than missing abilities in the use of colours. In fact these skills are utterly useless as long as you stay with creating black and white pencil drawings.

And that’s the important thing: only forget these weaknesses that don’t handicap your projects and sketches. But invest a fair part of your energy and time into those weaknesses that handicap you from creating better drawings and sketches. Work on compensating these weaknesses – and exclusively these!

And so you’ll have lot of hours left to try improving your existing skills even farther. And that’s what you ought to do, too. If you follow this scheme you’ll have the best outcomes imaginable for your time and effort.

One closing addition: these tips may look a little like those efficiency stuff taught in management courses. And yes it’s quite similar. But it’s not proposing to pressing the last bubble of creative thinking out of you! It is only for doing the right things in the right order that help you improve your sketching skills most.

And of course please don’t forget the entertaining part of sketching. So if you prefer to test new techniques since it’s entertaining then just do it! (and don’t ask yourself whether it will help you or not …)

Can Nuclear Get Greener The Green Benefits Of Depleted Uranium De-conversion

Nuclear power as a sustainable, environmentally-sound source of electricity is enjoying a comeback in terms of public opinion, but it still faces public and environmental challenges. On the one hand, the near zero-carbon emissions characteristic of nuclear power plants is attractive to industry and environmentalists alike. On the other hand, concerns remain about potentially-harmful environmental effects of the uranium-based fuels that make it possible.
Nearly all of the concern with nuclear power has focused upon the back end of the fuel cycle, namely the storage and disposal of spent fuel as high-level waste. While spent fuel has been the major focus issue surrounding nuclear power, there is actually another disposal issue at the front end of the fuel cycle: that of dealing with the large quantities of depleted uranium hexafluoride, which is a by-product of the uranium enrichment process.

Since the beginning of the nuclear power era approximately 60 years ago, there has never been an economical solution for the management of the large quantities of these depleted UF6 tails. And yet, an anticipated shift in the near future from foreign to domestic enrichment of uranium will result in a significant increase in depleted UF6 tails produced in the U.S.

A new commercial concept for an environmentally friendly de-conversion process is currently being advanced. The process design extracts high purity fluoride from the depleted tails using their patented process. This process is environmentally-friendly, energy saving, and it allows new and useful products to be created as a result.

A Brief Overview of Nuclear Fuel Cycle

To understand the meaning of depleted uranium and de-conversion, it is useful to have an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle.
A form of uranium, enriched in the U235 isotope, is used as fuel in nuclear reactors. In order to use uranium as a nuclear fuel, it must first be enriched, as follows:

1. Uranium that is mined from the earth is converted into uranium oxide or yellow cake.

2. The yellow cake is converted to UF6 gas through a multi-step chemical process using various chemicals, including fluorine. In the process, the uranium is converted into UF6 gas.

3. The UF6 gas is passed through a enrichment process at an enrichment facility. In the enrichment process, the U235 atoms present in the UF6 gas are enriched significantly from their naturally-occurring levels.

4. The enriched UF6 is then processed into uranium oxide and fabricated into nuclear fuel.

5. However, about 90% of the UF6 emerges from the enrichment process as depleted UF6, or tails, in which the concentration of the U235 atom has been greatly reduced to the level that is not economically or feasibly useful for further enrichment to reactor fuel. The depleted UF6 tails mentioned in step 5 above have historically been stored in large steel cylinders and ignored for years, or even decades. In the U.S. alone, there is already in excess of 1.6 billion pounds of stored depleted UF6 stored in enough cylinders that if you were to line them up end-to-end they would stretch for more than 130 miles.
At the present time, a vast amount of the enriched uranium required to fuel the existing U.S. nuclear reactors actually is imported from overseas. There is, however, a significant shift in effect towards domestic commercial uranium enrichment. Therefore, the proper management and storage of these domestically-produced depleted UF6 tails will become an important issue confronting the nuclear industry.

Direct Disposal of Depleted Tails is Not Acceptable

Depleted UF6 is a chemical form of uranium that cannot be directly disposed because it is chemically reactive. Therefore, in order to dispose of depleted UF6, some or all of the fluorine must be removed in a de-conversion process. This de-conversion process changes the uranium to a non-reactive (or less-reactive) oxide state. In this new granular or powder, solid state, the depleted uranium can be disposed in approved and licensed low-level radioactive waste landfills.
Historically, there has been little or no economic incentive for de-conversion since the fluorine has effectively been wasted. However, the anticipated dramatic growth in U.S. commercial enrichment creates a need to address the management of depleted UF6 produced from commercial enrichment companies and the new de-conversion process can extract value.

A Green De-Conversion Solution for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Industry

The de-conversion process design is both environmentally-friendly and economically-valuable. The process utilizes a proprietary Fluorine Extraction Process (FEP) to produce high-purity fluoride gas. FEP can be used to produce a variety of economically-viable pure fluoride gases.

There are several aspects of this new depleted uranium de-conversion process that clearly demonstrate its role as a green solution for the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle.

First, de-conversion itself is effectively a recycling process in which valuable fluoride material is recovered from the depleted uranium.

Second, some of the products produced by fluorine extraction are used in manufacturing thin films and photovoltaic (PV) materials for solar applications.
Third, producing fluoride products using FEP will save millions of pounds of CO2 emissions because of the energy efficiency of this process compared to conventional production methods.

As the nuclear fuel enrichment process increasingly takes place on U.S. soil, the Fluorine Extraction Process will offer a solution which is both environmentally-friendly and economically-valuable.

Free Energy – Fake Or Real

First of all, let’s define what free energy means. It means that the cost of creating energy is much less than produced energy. There are some obvious examples of free energy such as solar and wind energies, and not so obvious ones such as radiant energy and centrifugal force.

Some of those energy generating powers seem to be against all, or at least some, laws of science. Some of them are borderline with an ill-reputed “Perpetuum Mobile”. However, if you think about some major inventions of the past (such as airplane, diesel engine, and nuclear bomb) you will see that at the time those inventions were against scientific knowledge of the moment as well.

Let’s look at some possibilities in free energy which may not be as obvious as solar or wind.

– Ambient heat.
The idea of getting electrical or mechanical energy from the heat is not new. In 1900 Nicolas Tesla invented an engine which used heat from the air to produce mechanical energy and called it “Self-acting engine”. 60 years later, an air turbine was created which ran on the hot air going through it. In the same year Charles Brown was granted an US patent for his heat-to-electricity converter.

– Hydrogen.
Hydrogen is a part of water molecule (H2O) and as a result is highly available. With electrolysis hydrogen can be extracted from water and used as a fuel since when it is burned, it recombines with the oxygen and forms vapor. There are quite a few processes which allow separating hydrogen with little initial use of electricity making it a very efficient fuel for the future.

– Magnetism.
One of the most mysterious and abundant sources of energy, magnetism has attracted attention of humans since the ancient times. Sun and Earth both have their magnetic fields and this energy can be used for human consumption as free energy. Since 19th century discoveries in the field of magnetism (artificial magnetic field by Henry, magnetic induction by Faraday) reshaped our current reality with use of radio, television, computers, etc.

However, more applications for magnetism are yet to come. In the past 50 years inventions were made which seem to challenge the laws of physics known to us at the time. For example, inventors of a Zero point magnetic generator claim that their generator can produce free energy in the amounts larger than needed for the device to run. It means that Zero point magnetic generator is actually a perpetual generator, or a “Perpetuum Mobile” which was long ago dreamed off by inquisitive minds of the humankind.

Stone Veneer The Many Benefits Of This Natural, Versatile Stone

Stone veneer has been used throughout history for many different projects. Many home owners implement the use of this type of stone to enhance the overall beauty and appeal of their home, and/or lawn. With a little creativity, stone veneer can be used for many different things. Here, we will explore these uses, as well as the benefits associated with using this type of stone. If you are seeking out a unique, high-quality product that can bring out your exquisite taste and decorating ability, this is the product for you!

Stone Veneer Uses

There are many unique ways that one can implement the use of stone veneer. Listed below are some key examples:

Stone veneer can be used to line the exterior of a home.

Many use this decorative rock to line the doors that come in from the outside of the home.

There have been many creative mailbox designs stem from the use of stone veneer.

Many have lined driveways and sidewalks around the home in this type of decorative stone.

Wallstone decorative ponds can be created using this rock.

Many enhance fireplaces in the home with stone veneer.

Stone veneer can be used to outline the windows of the home.

Many homeowners elect to line certain walls within the home with stone veneer.

Those that have in-ground pools at their home may use stone veneer around the pool to add an exquisite and lavish beauty to the appearance of the recreational area.

There are many creative ways that stone veneer can be used. If you have an idea in mind on this particular type of stone, it is very likely that it can be used.

Stone Veneer Benefits

There are many benefits to using stone veneer on your home improvement projects. First, this particular type of natural stone has a unique beauty that is very appealing to the senses. It is unique in color and texture, which means that no two pieces are exactly alike. Furthermore, it has been stated that when the exterior of the home is lined in Stone veneer, the summers are cooler and the winters are warmer. This allows for general energy efficiency. Furthermore, stone veneer is extremely durable. This means that it can hold up to just about any amount of wear and tear or abuse and still look just as good as it did the first time it was applied! If you are looking for a product that exhibits beauty and durability, stone veneer is the choice for you!

Some Effective Methods To Enhance Your Home Energy Efficiency

Discovering a method to enhance your home efficiency can assist you to save a good amount of your monthly expenses. If you are capable to reduce the air leaking from inside or outside your home, then you can decrease your energy expenses for cooling and space heating. In this piece of writing, we will discuss some methods that can help you to enhance your home energy efficiency. Have a look:

Find Out Seal Cracks between Windows and Windows Frames:

Windows are the main air leakage causes for many houses. You must make the windows leak proof if you desire to get the premium energy efficiency. There are numerous methods to handle the air seepage problem by means of windows which dont need a lot of money and time. An easy way is to use a caulk gun to seal the cracks between the windows and window frames.

Make Use Of Storm Windows:

Storm windows are wonderful for energy-saving purposes, because they act as a wind buffer to snare air in between the storms and the main windows, and also work as the lagging to prevent the air leakage. You can either install wooden storm windows that will be removed in spring or install vinyl or aluminium storms that will be installed lastingly.

Weather Strip Your Doors:

Stopping the air leakage from windows is significant to get the energy efficiency, but doors can also play an important role in it. There are some options available on the internet to weather strip the doors. You can improve the weather stripping of your current door to a more effectual kind, for example, the door with vinyl bulb that can help you to stop the air from leakage.

Use Door Sweeps or Door Bottoms:

The weather stripping can stop the air leakage at the peak and the sides of a door, but not at the verge. It is a possible air seepage that can have an impact on your home efficiency. One of the best methods to resolve this dilemma is to install door seeps or door bottoms. The door sweeps are joined to the inside of a door at the base edge that will close the door and stop air leakage when the door is closed.

The premium method to enhance your home energy efficiency is to stop the energy from losses because of leakage problem. The above-mentioned techniques are the basic alterations that you can make in your houses windows and doors to prevent or reduce the air leakage of your house in order to enhance your home energy efficiency.

Saving Money Through Texas Energy Efficiency Investments

As one of the fastest growing states in the US, Texas is challenged with increasing its productivity and it can do this by increasing investments in energy efficiency initiatives that can save both residential and commercial users of Texas electricity literally billions of dollars over the next two decades. Seems like an impossible task? According to the American Council for the Energy-Efficient Economy or ACEEE, such proposition is not only possible but completely doable.

In a recent study conducted by the ACEEE called Energy Efficiency Investments as an Economic Productivity Strategy for Texas, energy efficiency programs in the state could reduce Texas electricity consumption by up to 30% by the year 2030, creating savings for electricity users of up to $14 billion within that period. Not only that, energy efficiency initiatives in the state will also boost employment by creating up to 47,000 jobs each year until the projected period of 2030.

The 30% projected reduction in Texas electricity consumption was based on targets set by the Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) for energy efficiency improvements. Also taken into consideration are the estimates made by the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) which handles the energy deregulated areas in the state. However, these projected figures will only be achieved with the expansion of current energy efficiency investments which spans all sectors including commercial, industrial and residential area.

Energy Efficiency Initiatives in Texas

According to the ACEEE study, to meet the growing demands for Texas electricity, the state would have to invest about 6 to 10 cents per kilowatt-hour on new electric generating plants. Energy efficiency provides a better alternative however, as the cost of investments to achieve a 30% gain in efficiency will only cost the state less than 4 cents per kilowatt-hour.

For years, energy efficiency programs to reduce electricity consumption in the state have already benefitted Texas residents and businesses as evident in their reduced energy bills. Between 2009 and 2011, the state already benefitted up to $1.5 billion in savings from these energy efficiency programs, which also created up to 12,000 jobs during this same period and reduced emissions by as much as 413 tons per year. By expanding these energy efficiency initiatives, the state will most likely hit its targets by the year 2030.

Texas schools have also benefitted from energy efficiency programs which involved easy investments. A school district with at least 4,000 students can realize savings by as much as $1.6 million in ten years or basically $160,000 savings each year from their Texas electricity bills. Most of the investment funds came from the Texas Loan STAR program for energy efficiency.

City governments have also taken initiatives in reducing energy consumption in their respective areas. In Houston, energy efficiency projects include the use of energy efficient LED traffic lights that would save as much as 85% more Houston electricity than traditional incandescent lamps. Aside from the cost savings, the use of energy efficient lamps also reduces carbon emissions, requires less maintenance and improves overall visibility for each traffic light.

In an energy deregulated Texas electricity market, consumers have the power to select their energy options and apply for grants that would finance their energy efficiency upgrades that would save thousands of dollars from their electricity bills each year. These are basically great investments that would help ensure a clean and sustainable future for all.

How To Pay For Energy Efficiency Without A Bank Loan Or Tapping Your Business Equity

You might want to retrofit your existing building with energy efficient lighting, HVAC or upgrades to the building envelope in order to save money on energy costs, but youve first got to come up with the funding for those improvements. Do you provide the required capital or continue to face increased operating costs? The ROI on new, energy-efficient systems may be longer, but the equipment will perform more reliably while providing better working conditions and lowering energy costs along the way. Most business owners will assume that funding for energy efficient upgrades has to come from dipping into their equity in the facility, or from an outside funding source such as a bank loan.
Fortunately, there are alternative strategies that can be put into place to pay for energy efficiency projects by significantly lowering your tax burden. A cost segregation analysis identifies and reclassifies personal property assets to shorten the depreciation time for taxation purposes, which reduces current income tax obligations. Personal property assets include a buildings non-structural elements, exterior land improvements and indirect construction costs. Depreciation expense is accelerated and tax payments are decreased when an assets life is shortened, which frees up cash for investment in energy efficiency projects.
The benefits of a cost segregation study are retroactive, including buildings that have been purchased, constructed, expanded or remodeled since 1987. This allows taxpayers to recapture previously unrecognized depreciation, which increases cash flow in the current year.
Another tax benefit that can be applied to energy efficient construction or improvements is found in section 179D of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. 179D includes full and partial tax deductions for investments in energy efficient commercial buildings that are designed to increase the efficiency of energy-consuming functions. The deduction available is up to $.60 per square foot for lighting, HVAC and building envelope, creating potential for $1.80 per square foot if all three components qualify. These deductions are applicable to buildings that were either built or retrofitted after December 31, 2005. In order to qualify for the deduction, the taxpayer must receive a third party energy efficiency certification.
In addition, the issuance of Revenue Procedure 2011-14 will allow some taxpayers to claim the 179D deduction all the way back to January 1, 2006 without filing one single amended income tax return. Taxpayers who wish to take the deduction without amending any returns will file a Form 3115 (Application for Change in Accounting Method) and will get to take the entire catch up deduction on the return that is being filed. This means that a taxpayer could potentially claim deductions from 2006-2010 (or 2011) all on one return and significantly reduce their tax burden, if not eliminate it altogether, which goes a long way toward funding energy efficiency.
Instead of looking to outside sources or reducing your valuable equity to fund energy efficiency, look to your own building for the answers. Putting the right strategy into place can result in surprisingly significant savings and painless way to pay for your project.

Advances In Dishwasher Technology

Prior to the purchase of kitchen appliances for your home you should always think about your family and lifestyle. The list of selected few will change the entire setting of the home. For every remodeling or refurnishing the designers will want this data first as this will be the foundation of every home. In the tech savvy world there are trends that are fast changing and you can select one depending on your budget. Buying a gadget means making a huge investment and it should be well thought that is durable in the long run.
Dishwashers have undergone changes over the years, replacing loud, clunky and noisy with incognito models that are so quiet it is difficult to tell if they are on. Look for home appliances that feature concealed control panels built into the top of the door and stylized paneling that keep this appliance from standing out. Humans today have a zero tolerance of noise; hence these gadgets are inbuilt with quieter motors and stainless-steel interiors that can sustain any amount of high temperature. This heat is generated by the water heat used to disinfectant the entire pile of dishes. A very essential feature for places with nearby theaters or if you have kids around then the more less the sound it makes the better it is.
You will be amazed at the number of people who are looking into the possibility of buying two or more dishwashers. This is a trend that is catching up in major kitchens and kitchen remodels for anyhome appliance fixtures. Certified designers all over the city are saying this is the ideal option for larger families or homes that like to entertain, one dishwasher can be cleaning while the other is being filled with new dirty dishes. Companies like Kitchen Aid and Fisher at Canada appliances have also come up with dishwasher drawers, essentially two independent dishwashing drawers that are stacked on top of one another to accommodate single or double-drawer loads. Homeowners interested in cutting-edge technology should be on the lookout for energy-efficiency, shorter cycles, and advanced features designed to cut time and fuss over dishes.
Purchasing this home appliance under one roof is possible only by Toronto appliances. This site gives the user all the information regarding which appliances are best suited for your needs. Under this Toronto appliances offers you all the latest brands available in the market all over the world in one place. Buying from place can be beneficial to the user in many ways, such as you can get the appliance at an affordable price. The online portals make you’re purchasing so easy and pleasurable then you could not ask for more right from the comfort of your home. The appliances from Canada appliances chosen are shipped to your address and all the repairs if any are taken care for within in warranty period.

Energy Efficiency And The Us Heavy Industry

Heavy Industry’ is a rather amorphous term. According to Wikipedia, Heavy Industry signifies the production of goods that are either heavy in weight or in the processes leading to their production.Examples of such industries include steel, chemical, mining, and construction equipment, machinery.

The United States is the largest consumer of energy in the world, using 94.9 quadrillion BTUs in 2009 and heavy industry in the United States accounts for about 31% of all energy consumption, significantly more than any other sector of the economy. Seven energy-intensive industries use three-fourths of this power; these are aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, mining, and steel. All these heavy industries are also under tremendous pressure to reduce their huge dependence on expensive non
renewable energy.

A recent study by the European Commission thinks not. The study estimates that the United States has the potential to save about 45 TWh energy per year, through use of energy efficient transformers. Even a 0.01 percent gain in the average efficiency of utility transformers installed in the U.S. in a single year, can save as much as 2.9 Twh energy.

The environmental benefits of energy-efficient transformers are also significant and the study by the European Commission believes transformers could well emerge as a major focus for energy efficient
initiatives in the industry.

Energy Guzzling Industries
Chemical Industry,
Paper and Pulp Industry
Iron and Steel Industry
Mining Industry

Is the Answer Energy-Efficiency

Energy efficiency is already playing a significant role in the Heavy Industry, but with growing concerns of greenhouse gas emissions and skyrocketing cost of energy, it obviously needs to do more.Before the 1970s, the U.S. energy consumption grew in parallel to gross domestic product (GDP). Had that trend continued, current U.S. energy demand would have more than doubled, currently, the energy consumption is 1.5 times that of 1970. Reduction in energy consumption has resulted from a combination of energy efficient methods and a shift from energy-intensive manufacturing toward a service and information-based economy.

Do Energy Efficient Transformers Hold the Key?

As energy costs rise and availability becomes uncertain, the necessity of utilizing energy-efficient products becomes imperative. Additionally, a globally competitive business environment is causing businesses to cut costs in order to remain competitive. Of particular interest are distribution transformers
that are the largest loss-making components in electrical networks.

In a typical grid, electric transformer loss contributes to about 40-50% of the total transmission and distribution loss. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that on a conservative estimate 61 billion kWh annually can be attributed to transformer losses. These losses cost end-users $3 to $4 billion annually. An energy-efficient transformer is therefore an important means to reduce transmission and distribution loss. Energy saving transformers can additionally save the equivalent of more than 70 million tons of CO2 emissions.

The answer to energy efficiency is in making distribution transformers efficient; and thankfully, manufacturers have the technical know-how to offer better, cost effective, low loss, energy efficient transformers.

Energy Efficient Distribution Transformers

Distribution transformers distribute power from power generating facilities to end-users and while energy loss during transmission is inevitable, measures are taken to reduce it considerably.However, for energy to be consumed voltage needs to be reduced and it is at this point of stepping down electricity that distribution transformers lose energy. Even though only a small portion of energy is lost it is in a permanent manner and standby power losses account for 2% of total electricity production.

Despite high average efficiencies of 95 to 99.75%, transformers have a significant environmental impact because they continuously consume power.

The energy losses in electricity transformers fall into two components, namely, no-load losses resulting from the energized iron core, which is a permanent phenomenon, and load losses, arising when providing power to users. Load losses also result from the resistance of the coil when the transformer is in use, and from eddy currents due to stray flux.

Technical solutions exist to reduce transformer losses by 75% at minimum when replaced by modern transformers or even by 90% when replacing transformers over 30 years old. Energy-efficiency can be improved with better transformer design, like selecting better, lower-core-loss steels; reducing flux density in a specific core by increasing the core size; increasing conductor cross-section to reduce current density; good balancing between the relative quantities of iron and copper in the core and coils.

An energy efficient transformer is an important means to reduce Transmission & Distribution loss and can save up to 120 TWh / year. Energy efficient transformers can provide considerable environmental benefits too. For example, a typical urban distribution transformer rated at 400 kW has lifetime losses equivalent to 125 “”184 tons of CO2 emissions; a more energy-efficient design can reduce these emissions to 56 tons.